Clark's Practical Grammar (1847)

The first complete diagramming system was developed by S. W. Clark in A Practical Grammar: in which Words, Phrases, and Sentences are Classified According to their Offices, and their Relation to Each Other. Illustrated by a Complete System of Diagrams (1847). His system

I have scanned the first part of Clark's book (pp. 18-36), which includes an overview of the system, illustrative examples for various sentence types, and practice exercises (remarkable only for their abundant citation of bad poetry). I've made some effort to preserve the format of the original, although the original pagination and a few other features are ignored, and pictures appear larger than in the original for the sake of clarity. I've silently corrected a few obvious printer's errors, but the punctuation is original, and not always in keeping with modern practice. The scans here come from the 6th edition (1853). Some pages in my copy are foxed, hence the spotting in the images.

Note: Clark's terminology is antiquated and may confuse a reader familiar with the terms' modern meanings. In particular, note that an auxiliary sentence is a subordinate clause, and etymology does not just mean the origin of words but also includes morphology, that is, their inflections, etc.

Title Page










“Speech is the body of thought.”

BY S. W. CLARK, A. M.,








General Rules


Prin. The office of a word in a sentence, determines its position in the diagram, according to the following



  1. The principal parts of a sentence are placed uppermost, and on the same horizontal line; as 1, 2, 3.
  2. The Subject of a sentence takes the first place; as 1.
  3. The Predicate is placed to the right of the subject—attached; as 2—7—11—26
  4. The Object is placed to the right of the predicate; as 3. The object of a phrase is placed to the right of the word which introduces the phrase; as 22 to the right of 21.
  5. A word, phrase, or sentence, is placed beneath the word which it qualifies; as 4 and 5 qualify I ~—(25, 26, x) qualify 22
  6. A word used to introduce a phrase, is placed beneath the word which the phrase qualities—having its object to the right and connecting both; as 15 connecting 12 and 16—21 connecting 3 and 22.
  7. A word used only to connect, is placed between the two words connected; as 10 between 7 and 11; and a word used to introduce a sentence, is placed above the predicate of the sentence, and attached to it by a line; as 0 above 2.
  8. A word relating back to an other word, is attached to the antecedent by a line; as 6 attached to 1, and x to 22.
Sample Diagram - General Form

Explanation of the preceding Diagram.
0—Introduces a sentence,  Rule 7.
2—Predicate of 1,
3—Object of 2.
4 and 5 individually, and 6 to 19 inclusive,
 collectively, qualify or define 1,
6—Subject of 7 and 11, and relates to 1, 2 and 8.
7—Predicate of 6, 3.
8 and 9—Modify 7, 5.
10—Connects 7 and 11,  7.
11—Predicate of 6, 3.
12—Object of 11, 4.
13, 14, (15, 16, 17, 18, 19)—Qualify or define 12, 5.
20 and (21, 22, 23, 24)—Qualify or define 3, 5.
21—Shows a relation of 3 and 22, 6.
22—Object of 21, 4.
23, 24, (25, 26, x)—Qualify or define 22, 5.
25—Subject of 26, 2.
26—Predicate of 25, 3.
x-Object (understood) of 26 and relating to 22, 4 and 8.

Classification of Sentences

Rem.—Some sentences assert the being, condition, or state, of a person or thing—or an action which does not terminate on an object. Others assert an ction which terminates on an object.

Some sentences assert but one fact; others, more. Some assert an independent, or a principal proposition; others, a secondary, or qualifying proposition. Hence,

Prin. Sentences are distinguished as—

Intransitive or Transitive,
Simple or Compound,
Principal or Auxiliary.

Def. 27. An Intransitive Sentence asserts being, condition, or state—or an act which does not terminate on an object.

EXAMPLES—I am—William sleeps—James is weary—Animals run—Cora sings sweetly—God is Love.

OBS.—An Intransitive Sentence contains one or more subjects and predicates, but no object.

Def. 28. A Transitive Sentence asserts an act which terminates on an object.

EXAMPLES—Birds built nests—Bring flowers—John and Dennis saw wood—Jane studies Grammar and Botany—“The king of shadows loves a shining mark.”

OBS.—1A Transitive Sentence has at least one subject, one predicate, and one object.

Def. 29. A Simple Sentence asserts but one proposition.

OBS.—It asserts but one fact concerning one person or thing. Hence, it contains but one subject, and one predicate, and (if transitive) one object.

EXAMPLES—Birds fly—John is studious—Resources are developed.

NOTE.—Two or more simple sentences, distinct in grammatical construction, may have a logical connection. Such a collection of sentences is properly called a Period.

“Wheat grows in the field—and men reap it.”

“A friend exaggerates a man's virtues—an enemy his crimes.”

Def. 30. A Compound Sentence asserts two or more propositions.

OBS.—It asserts two or more facts concerning one or more persons or things.

As, Henry studies and recites grammar.

Or it asserts one or more facts concerning two or more persons or things.

As, Homer and Henry study grammar.

Or it asserts one act of one person or thing which terminates on two or more objects.

As, Henry studies grammar and arithmetic.

Hence, a compound sentence contains two or more subjects, or predicates or objects.

DEF. 30, a.—The parts of a compound sentence are called clauses.

OBS.—The compound clauses may be—


Diagram 6 1. The subjects—As, Homer and Henry study grammar.
2. The predicates—Henry studies and recites grammar.
3. The objects—Henry studies grammar and arithmetic.

Rem.—Sentences which have compound predicates, often have objects applicable to only a part of them. Hence,

DEF. 30, b.—A compound sentence having one or more transitive. and one or more intransitive clauses, is a Mixed Sentence.


Diagram 7 EXAMPLES—Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to Hope.
The stars will then lift up their heads and rejoice.

NOTE.—A compound sentence is not “a union of two or more simple sentences.” “Wheat grows in the field, and men reap it.” Here are two simple sentences independent of each other, so far as the grammatical construction of them is concerned. The latter sentence is simply added to the former—and its proximity alone determines the word for which the word “it” is substituted.

Nor is a compound sentence always “made up of parts of two or more simple sentences.” Oxygen and Hydrogen form water. We may not say—Oxygen forms water and Hydrogen forms water; but as the two things,Oxygen and Hydrogen, must be joined chemically before they can form water, so the two words, “Oxygen” and “Hydrogen,” must be joined in construction, before the “subject of the sentence” is complete.

A compound sentence has at least one member of one of the principal parts common to two or more members of another of the principal parts.

[See Examples above.]

Def. 31. A Principal Sentence asserts an independent or principal proposition: as,


Diagram 8 A mortal disease was upon her vitals.”

Def. 32. An Auxiliary Sentence expresses a qualifying assertion: as,


Diagram 9 “A mortal disease was upon her vitals, before Caesar had passed the Rubicon.”

NOTE.—An auxiliary sentence is an adjunct of a sentence phrase, or word, going before in construction; or it is used as a substitute for a noun. Hence,

Prin. Auxiliary sentences are distinguished as Substantive, Adjective, and Adverbial.

DEF. 32, a.—A Substantive Sentence is used as the subject of object of a verb: as,


Diagram 10 That good men sometimes commit faults can not be denied.”
“Much learning shows how little mortals know.”

NOTE.—A sentence is sometimes used independently in construction, although explanatory of another: as,

“It echoed his text, Take heed how ye hear.”

DEF. 32, b.—An Adjective Sentence is used to qualify a noun or pronoun: as,


Diagram 11 “He that getteth, wisdom, loveth his own soul”

DEF. 32, c.—An Adverbial Sentence is used to modify the signification of a Verb, Adjective, or Adverb: as,

Diagram 12 “Where wealth and freedom reign, contentment fails.”

Def. 33. A principal sentence, with its auxiliary sentences, constitutes a Complex sentence.

“He hears the thunder ere the tempest lowers.”

[See Examples attached to Diagrams 9, 10, 11, and 12.]

Simple Sentences

1. “The king of shadows loves a shining mark.”

Diagram 13

A simple sentence—transitive, See defs. 28 and 29.
Principal parts. King—Subject, 21.
Loves—Predicate, 22.
Mark—Object, 23.
The } Adjuncts of king,
Of shadows
A } Adjuncts of mark,

fist Let the construction of this sentence be written on the black-board.

Other Examples applicable to the same Diagram.

2. The science of Geology illustrates many astonishing facts.

fist Let the Analysis of this sentence be written on the black-board.

Words. Use. Class. Def.
The, limits “science.” Adj., 9.
Science, agent of the action expressed by “illustrates.” Noun, 7.
Of, expresses a relation of “science” and “geology.” Prep., 12.
Geology, object of the relation expressed by “of” Noun, 7.
Illustrates, expresses the action performed by “science.” Verb, 10.
Many, limits “facts.” Adj., 9.
Astonishing, qualifies “facts.” Adj., 9.
Facts, object of the action expressed by “illustrates.” Noun, 7.
  1. A love for study secures our intellectual improvement.
  2. The habit of intemperance produces much lasting misery.
  3. A desire for improvement should possess all our hearts.
  4. The use of tobacco degrades many good men.
  5. A house on fire presents a melancholy spectacle.
  6. A man of refinement will adopt no disgusting habit.

fist Let each pupil make a sentence adapted to the above diagram.

Compound Sentences

1. “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.”

Diagram 14
A compound sentence—transitive,  Def.*
Heaven } Objects,
In the beginning—Adjunct of created,
The—Adjunct of heaven,
The—Adjunct of earth,
Words. Use. Class. Def.
In, expresses a relation of “created” and “beginning,” Prep, 12.
The, limits “beginning,” Adj., 9.
Beginning, object of relation expressed by “in,” Noun, 7.
God, agent of the action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7.
Created, expresses the action performed by “God,” Verb, 10.
The, limits “heaven,” Adj., 9.
Heaven, object of action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7.
And, connects “heaven” and “earth,” Conj., 13.
The, limits “earth,” Adj., 9.
Earth, object of action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7.
  1. He educated his daughter and his son, at great expense.
  2. Students require of the teacher, much instruction and some patience.
  3. We, at all times, seek our honor and our happiness.
  4. God, in the creation, has displayed his wisdom and his power.
  5. Men gather the tares and the wheat, with equal care.
  6. John loves his study and his play, with equal attachment.

* Let the pupil repeat these definitions.

The Lord uplifts his awful hand
And chains you to the shore.


Diagram 15

Compound sentence—transitive

Lord—Subject of “uplifts” and “chains.”
Uplifts } Predicates of “Lord.”
Hand—Object of “uplifts.”
You—Object of “chains.”
Adjuncts. The—Adjunct of “Lord.”
} Adjuncts of “hand.”
To the shore—Adjunct of “chains.”

Other examples, in which the Principal Parts are the same.

fistLet the pupil place in diagrams, the following sentences:

“He heard the king's command,
And saw that writing's truth.”
“For misery stole me at my birth,
And cast me helpless on the wild.”

“Then weave the chaplet of flowers and strew the beauties of nature about the grave.”
“They fulfilled the great law of labor in the letter, but broke it in the spirit.”

                               “That the page unfolds
And spreads us to the gaze of God and men.”
“Now twilight lets her curtain down,
And pins it with a star.”
“He marks, and in heaven's register enrolls,
The rise AND progress of each option there.”

REMARK.—The last example differs from the others. Let the pupil tell wherein.

Temperance and frugality promote health, and secure happiness.

Diagram 16

A compound sentence—transitive.
Temperance }Subjects of “promote” and “secure.”
} Predicates of  ≴temperance” and “frugality≵
Health—Object of “promote.”
Happiness—Object of “secure.”

NOTE.—If I say—“Temperance promotes health and frugality secures happiness,” I make two distinct sentences each “simple.” But the “and” may be taken from between “temperance” and “frugality,” and placed between “health” and “happiness,” and it remains a compound sentence. It will then read thus—“Temperance promotes, and frugality secures, health and happiness;”—and is thus construed:

Temperance—Subject of “promotes.”
Promotes—Predicate of “temperance.”
Frugality—Subject of “secures.”
Secures—Predicate of “frugality.”
Health } Objects of “secures“ and “promotes.”

“There youth and beauty tread the choral ring,
And shout their raptures to the cloudless skies.”
“Prayer only, and the penitential tear,
Can call her smiling down and fix her here.”—Cowper.

NOTE TO THE TEACHER.—The Author suggests that the Teacher give to each Pupil, a sentence to be placed in Diagram, and presented for inspection and criticism, at a subsequent recitation. It is believed that this practice, repeated every day, will be an agreeable and profitable exercise.


Diagram 17
“Wisdom and virtue elevate and ennoble man.”
“The toils and cares of life torment the restless mind.”*
“Passion degrades and brutalizes man.”†

*A compound sentence—transitive; having two subjects, one predicate, and one object.

} Subjects of “torment.”
Torment—Predicate of “toils [and] cares.”
Mind—Object of “torment.”

} Adjuncts of “toils and “cares.”
Of life
} Adjuncts of “mind.”

†A compound sentence—transitive—having one subject, two predicates, and one object.


Passion—Subject of “degrades and brutalizes.”
Degrades } Predicates of “Passion.”
Man—Object of “degrades and brutalizes.”

Miscellaneous Examples having their Principal Parts adapted to Diagram a, b, or c, Fig. 17.

“Pride and envy accompany and strengthen each other.”
“Illuminated Reason and regulated Liberty shall once more exhibit man in the image of his Maker.”
“Here Art and Commerce, with auspicious reign,
Once breathed sweet influence on the happy plain.”
“For Hopes too long delayed,
And Feelings blasted or betrayed,
Its fabled Bliss destroy.”
“Patience and perseverance will surmount or remove the most formidable difficulties.”
“Then Strife and Faction rule the day,
And Pride and Avarice throng the way;
Loose Revelry and Riot bold,
In freighted streets their orgies hold.”
“The hunter's trace and the dark encampments started the wild beasts from their lairs.”
“Thy praise the widow's sighs, and orphan's tears embalm”
“Their names, their years; spelled by the unlettered muse,
The place of fame and elegy supply.”—Grey.
“Hence, every state, to one loved blessing prone,
Conforms and models life to that alone.”
“Hope, like a cordial, innocent though strong,
Man's heart at once inspirits and serenes.”—Young
“For which we shunned and hated thee before.”
“By thus acting, we cherish and improve both.”
“When mighty Alfred's piercing soul
Pervades and regulates the whole.”
“Knowledge reaches, or may reach, every home.”
“Whose potent arm perpetuates existence or destroys.”
Hill and valley echo back their songs.
“He tossed not high his ready cap in air,
Nor lifted up his voice in servile shouts,
At sight of that great ruffian.”

Diagram 18Unnumbered systems, suns, and worlds, unite to worship thee.

A compound sentence—intransitive; containing three subjects and one predicate.


Systems, } Subjects of “ unite.”
Unite—Predicate of “ systems, suns, and worlds.”
Adjuncts. Unnumbered—Adjunct of “systems, suns, and worlds.”
To worship thee—Adjunct of “unite.”

“The lame, the blind, and the aged repose in hospitals.”

Complex Sentences

Too low they build, who build beneath the stars.” Young

Diagram 21

A complex sentence—both simple and intransitive.

They—Subject of “build.”
Build—Predicate of “they.”
Adjuncts. Low—Adjunct of “build.”
Too—Adjunct of “low.”
Who build beneath the stars—Adjunct of “they.”
{ Who—Subject of “build.”
Build—Predicate of “who.”
Adjuncts. { Beneath stars—Adjunct of “build.”
The—Adjunct of “stars.”

Diagram 22

But they that fight for freedom, undertake
The noblest cause mankind can have at stake.

A complex sentence.

They—Subject of “undertake.”
Undertake—Predicate of “they.”
Cause—Object of “undertake.”
Adjuncts. That fight for freedom—Adjunct of they.”
The } Adjuncts of "cause"
[that] mankind can have at stake


But, introduces an additional sentence, Conj.
They, agent of action expressed by “undertake,” Pron.
That, agent of action expressed by “fight,” Pron.
Fight expresses the action performed by “that,” Verb.
For, expresses a relation of “fight “ and “freedom,” Prep.
Freedom, object of relation expressed by “for,” Noun.
Undertake, expresses the action of “they,” Verb.
The, limits “cause,” Adj.
Noblest, qualifies “cause,” Adj.
Cause, object of the action expressed by “undertake,” Noun.
X, [that], object of “can have”—referring to “cause,” Pron.
Mankind, agent of action expressed by “can have,” Noun.
Can have, expresses an action of “mankind,” Verb.
At, expresses a relation of “can have” and “stake,” Prep.
Stake, object of relation expressed by “at,” Noun.

fistLet each pupil make a sentence for the above diagram.

And students who love to study, merit the highest which teachers can give them.

Our proper bliss depends on what [that which] we blame.”

Diagram 23

A Complex sentence—the Auxiliary qualifies a phrase.

Bliss—Subject of “depends.”
Depends—Predicate of “bliss.”
Our } Adjuncts of “bliss.”

On what we blame—Adjunct of “depends.”

On—Expresses a relation of “depends” and “what.”
What{ [That]—Object of relation expressed by “on.”
[Which]—Object of action expressed by “blame.”

We—Subject of “blame.”

Blame—Predicate of “we.”

fistLet sentences be made for the above diagrams.

God never meant, that man should scale the heavens
By strides of human wisdom

Diagram 24

A complex sentence the Auxiliary the logical object of the Principal.

fistLet the Analysis of this sentence be written on the black-board.

Mixed Sentences

Time slept on flowers and lent his glass to hope.

Diagram 25

A mixed sentence.—Def. 30, b.

Time—Subject of “slept” and “lent.”
Slept } Predicates of “time.”
Glass—Object of “lent.”
Adjuncts. On flowers—Adjunct of “slept.”
His—Adjunct of “glass.”
To hope—Adjunct of “lent.”

fistLet the pupil apply the following sentences to the same diagram.

  1. We sign for change, and spend our lives for nought.
  2. We shall pass from earth, and yield our homes to others.
  3. William goes to school, and pursues his studies with diligence.
  4. James stays at home, and spends his time at play.
  5. Fruits ripen in autumn, and yield us rich repasts.
  6. Eagles build their nests on high, and watch for prey.
  7. Larks sing at dawn, and afford us much delight.

Vary the Adjuncts for the following.
“For spring shall return and a lover bestow.” Beattie.
“But the black blast blows hard,
And puffs them wide of hope.”
“Wreaths of smoke ascend through the trees, and betray the half hidden cottage.”
“Its little joys go out, one by one,
And leave poor man, at length, in perfect night.”
“In silence majestic they twinkle on high,
And draw admiration from every eye.”
“The waves mount up and wash the face of heaven.”

Diagram 26
For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast,
And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed.

A mixed sentence—complex.—Def. 30, b. and 33.

Angel—Subject of “spread” and “breathed.”
} Predicates of “angel.”
Wings—Object of “spread.”
The } Adjuncts of “angel.”
Of death
His—Adjunct of  “wings.”
On the blast—Adjunct of “spread.”
In the face of the foe } Adjuncts of “breathed.”
As he passed
As—Introduces an auxiliary sentence.
He—Subject of “passed.”
Passed—Predicate of “he.”

fistLet the principal parts of the same diagram be written on the black-board, and vary the adjuncts to the following sentences.

“He plants his footsteps in the sea,
And rides upon the storm”
The ravished eye casts its glance around on every side, and is never satisfied with gazing.
“That I might explore the records of remote ages, and become familiar with the learning and literature of other times.” Taylor
“But now a wave, high rising o’er the deep,
Lifts its dire crest—and, like a vengeful fiend,
Comes as a mountain on.”
“He leaps enclosures, bounds into the world.”—Young
“By that dread name, we wave the sword on high,
And swear for her to live—with her to die.”
“The moon in the east, now her crescent displays,
And adds to the grandeur of night.”

And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill.”
Diagram 27
Compound sentence—intransitive.

{ Eyes—Subject of “waxed deadly [and] chill.”
Waxed deadly [and] chill—Predicate of “eyes.”
Adjuncts. { The } Adjuncts of “eyes.”
Of the sleepers
And, introduces an additional sentence Conj., 13.
The, limits “eyes,” Adj., 9.
Eyes, agent of “waxed deadly [and] chill,” Noun, 7.
Of, expresses relation of “eyes” [and] “sleepers,” Prep., 12.
The, limits “sleepers,” Adj., 9.
Sleepers, object of relation expressed by “of,” Noun, 7.
Waxed, expresses (with “deadly” [and] chill”) what is affirmed of “eyes,” Verb, 10.
Deadly, used in predication with waxed Adj., 9.
And, connects “deadly” [and] “chill,” Conj., 13.
Chill, used in predication with waxed, Adj., 9.

Additional Examples
“Age is dark and unlovely.”—Ossian.
“Now, therefore, be not grieved nor angry with yourselves.”
“Bloodless are these limbs and cold.”—Byron.
“How finely diversified, and how multiplied into many thousand distinct exercises, is the attention of God.”—Chalmers.
“I am perplexed and confounded.”
“They became agitated and restless.”
“The wares of the merchant are spread abroad in the shops, or stored in the high-piled warehouses.”
“Rude am I in speech, and little blest With the set phrase of peace.”
“What bark is plunging ’mid the billowy strife,
And dashing madly on to fearful doom.”


Diagrams of the Principal Parts of Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences.


d36aIntransitive—having one Subject, one Predicate.
d36bTransitive—having one Subject, one Predicate, one Object.


d36-cde  Intransitive—two Subjects, one Predicate
 Intransitive—one Subject, two Predicates.
 Transitive—one Subject, two Predicates, two Objects.
d36-f-k  Transitive—two Subjects, two Predicates, one Object.
 Transitive—two Subjects, two Predicates, two Objects.
 Transitive—two Subjects, one Predicate, two Objects.
 Transitive—two Subjects, one Predicate, one Object.
 Transitive—one Subject, two Predicates, one Object.
 Transitive—one Subject, one Predicate, two Objects.


d36-lm  First Clause, Intransitive; Second, Transitive.
 First Clause, Transitive; Second, Intransitive.


d36-no  The Auxiliary sentence Substantive Subject of the Principal sentence.
 The Auxiliary sentence Substantive Object of the Principal sentence.
d36-p  Principal sentence, Simple, Intransitive.
 Auxiliary sentence, Simple, Transitive, Adverbial.
d37-q  Principal sentence, Simple, Transitive.
 Auxiliary sentence, Simple, Transitive, Adjective.


fist Rem.—Let the pupil write the Diagram for each sentence on the back-board and insert the words in the proper places.

Beatitudes diagram Blessed are the poor in spirit,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are they that mourn,
for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek,
for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst
after righteousness, for they shall be filled.
Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they shall see God.
Blessed is the man that endureth temptation,
for, when he is tried,
he shall receive the crown of life,
which the Lord hath promised
to them that love him.


That I have taken this old man's daughter, is most true.”
“As they sat down, one SAID to his friend at his right, ‘We shall soon see who is who.’”
“We bustle up with unsuccessful speed,
And in the saddest part, cry—‘Droll indeed.’”
“Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.”
“A celebrated writer says—‘Take care of the minutes and the hours will take care of themselves.’”

“There is SOMETHING in their hearts which passes speech.”
“I heard the complaints of the LABORERS who had reaped down his fields, and the cries of the POOR whose covering he had taken away.”
“The difference in the HAPPINESS which is received or bestowed by the MAN who guards his temper, and that by the MAN who does not, is immense.”

And, as I passed along, I HEARD the complaints of the laborers.
“The sweet remembrance of the just,
SHALL FLOURISH when he sleeps in dust.”
“But when he caught the measure wild,
The old man RAISED his head, and SMILED.”
“And when [he was] listening to this, he WOULD often CLASP his hands in ecstasy of delight.”
“Their advancement in life and in education was SUCH that each ought to have been a gentleman.”
As they sat down, one SAID to his friend on his right, 'We shall soon see who is who.’”
If you would know the deeds of him who chews,
ENTER the house of God, and SEE the pews.” Adams.

Virtue secures happiness.
“Darkness is o’er the land—
For lo! a death-flag streams upon the breeze—
The Hero hath departed!”
“Nay, let us weep. Our grief hath need of tears—
Tears should embalm the dead.

 * * * * * * *

Throned in a nation’s love he sunk to sleep,
And so awoke in heaven.”—Mrs. Stevens.
“The perfect world, by Adam trod,
Was the first temple—built by God:
His fiat laid the corner-stone,
And heaved its pillars one by one.
“He hung its starry roof on high—
The broad, illimitable sky;
He spread its pavement green and bright,
And curtained it with morning light.”

  1. “A man of refinement never has recourse to proverbs and vulgar aphorisms.”
  2. “Across the ocean, came a pilgrim bark.”
  3. The bark of the trunk of the white oak is frequently variegated with large black spots.
  4. The wood of the young stocks is very elastic, and is susceptible of minute divisions
  5. “The flowers put forth in the month of May.”
  6. Night, sable goddess, from her ebon throne
    In rayless majesty, now stretches forth
    Her leaden sceptre o’er a slumbering world.”
  7. “Vulgarism in language, is a distinguishing characteristic of bad company, and a bad education,”
  8. “The wood of the Silver Fir is not much used as timber.” Goodrich
  9. “The Hemlock Spruce is not much esteemed for timber.”
  10. “Milton’s learning has all the effect of intuition.”
  11. “His imagination has the force of nature.”
  12. “Heaven, from all creatures, hides the book of fate.”
  13. “And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man who was blind.”
  14. “If a noble squire had conducted himself well, during the period of his service, the honor of Knighthood was generally conferred upon him at the age of twenty.”
  15. “ Another bright day's sunset bathes the hills
    That gird Samaria.”
  16. “One glance of wonder, as we pass, deserve
    The books of Time.”
  17. “A fretful temper will divide
    The choicest knot that may be tied,
    By ceaseless, sharp corrosion.
  18. A temper, passionate and fierce,
    May suddenly your joys disperse
    At one immense explosion.”
  19. “But no mere human work or character is perfect.
  20. “The profoundest depths of man's intellect can be fathomed.
  21. “In the loftiest frights of his imagination he can be followed.
  22. “None of his richest mines are inexhaustible.”
  23. The time must come, when all will have been said, that can be said, to exalt the character of any individual of our race, however great his talents or illustrious his virtues.
  24. “Mysterious are His ways, whose power
    Brings forth that unexpected hour,
    When minds that never met before,
    Shall meet, unite, and part no more.”
  25. “Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not.”
  26. “That secrets are a sacred trust,
    That friends should be sincere and just,
    That constancy befits them—
    Are observations on the case,
    That savor much of common-place,
  27. And all the world admits them.”
  28. “The dilatory caution of Pope enabled him to condense his sentiments, to multiply his images, and to accumulate all that study might produce, or chance supply.”
  29. “Dryden often surpasses expectation—
  30. Pope never falls below it.”
  31. “Dryden is read with frequent astonishment—
  32. Pope, with perpetual delight.”
  33. “The heavenly hills were oft within thy view,
  34. And oft the shepherd called thee to his flock.”