Grammar

Rem.—Some sentences assert the being, condition, or state, of a person or thing—or an action which does not terminate on an object. Others assert an ction which terminates on an object.

Some sentences assert but one fact; others, more. Some assert an independent, or a principal proposition; others, a secondary, or qualifying proposition. Hence,

Prin. Sentences are distinguished as—

DIAGRAMS.

Prin. The office of a word in a sentence, determines its position in the diagram, according to the following


GENERAL RULES.

RULE

  1. The principal parts of a sentence are placed uppermost, and on the same horizontal line; as 1, 2, 3.
  2. The Subject of a sentence takes the first place; as 1.
  3. The Predicate is placed to the right of the subject—attached; as 2—7—11—26
  4. The Object is placed to the right of the predicate; as 3. The object of a phrase is placed to the right of the word which introduces the phrase; as 22 to the right of 21.
  5. A word, phrase, or sentence, is placed beneath the word which it qualifies; as 4 and 5 qualify I ~—(25, 26, x) qualify 22
  6. A word used to introduce a phrase, is placed beneath the word which the phrase qualities—having its object to the right and connecting both; as 15 connecting 12 and 16—21 connecting 3 and 22.
  7. A word used only to connect, is placed between the two words connected; as 10 between 7 and 11; and a word used to introduce a sentence, is placed above the predicate of the sentence, and attached to it by a line; as 0 above 2.
  8. A word relating back to an other word, is attached to the antecedent by a line; as 6 attached to 1, and x to 22.
(5.)
THE SCIENCE

OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.




A

PRACTICAL GRAMMAR:


IN WHICH


WORDS, PHRASES, AND SENTENCES ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO

THEIR OFFICES, AND THEIR RELATION TO EACH OTHER.


ILLUSTRATED BY


A COMPLETE SYSTEM OF DIAGRAMS.


“Speech is the body of thought.”


BY S. W. CLARK, A. M.,

In traditional grammar, adverb was a catch-all category for everything that was difficult to analyze. Unfortunately, this had the effect of making the category heterogeneous. Some words that are traditionally called adverbs show very different distributions from other words in the same caategory. In some cases, we will not categorize these words as adverbs at all. We will note such cases as they occur in later chapters. We will begin, however, with the most obvious cases.

Adverbs are characteristically used to modify verbs. That is, they perform the same function for verbs that adjectives do for nouns. And indeed, adjectives and adverbs are often closely related, but they do not appear in the same function:

Topic: 
Adjectives typically specify characteristics of nouns, or they limit the application, as in "the large refund," "an enthusiastic participant," or "purple prose." Most often they appear before a noun, although they can also appear in their own phrases after certain verbs known as linking verbs, as in "Wilma looks cheerful." or "They were happy."

Morphologically, most adjectives are gradable. That is, they express the grammatical category known as degree. The basic form of the adjective, which expresses a quality, is known as the positive degree. To express a greater intensity of one of two items, the comparative degree is used, either by adding the suffix –er or with the word more and the basic adjective. To express the greatest intensity among three or more items, the superlative degree is used, either with –est or most.

Topic: 

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